Recent applications of carbon nanomaterials in fluorescence biosensing and bioimaging
Carbon-based nanomaterials as important agents for biological applications have emerged in the past few years due to their unique optical, electronic, mechanical, and chemical properties. Many of these applications rely on successful surface modifications. This review article comprises two main parts. In the first part, we briefly review the properties and surface modifications of several classes of carbon nanomaterials, mainly carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene and its derivatives, carbon dots (CDs) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs), as well as some other forms of carbon-based nanomaterials such as fullerene, carbon nanohorns (CNHs) and carbon nanoonions (CNOs). In the second part, we focus on the biological applications of these carbon nanomaterials, in particular their applications for fluorescence biosensing as well as bioimaging.