Highly sensitive and rapid detection of acetylcholine using an ITO plate modified with platinum-graphene nanoparticles†
Determining the concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh) and choline (Ch) is clinically important. ACh is a neurotransmitter that acts as a key link in the communication between neurons in the spinal cord and in nerve skeletal junctions in vertebrates, and plays an important role in transmitting signals in the brain. A bienzymatic sensor for the detection of ACh was prepared by co-immobilizing choline oxidase (ChO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on graphene matrix/platinum nanoparticles, and then electrodepositing them on an ITO-coated glass plate. Graphene nanoparticles were decorated with platinum nanoparticles and were electrodeposited on a modified ITO-coated glass plate to form a modified electrode. The modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies. The optimum response of the enzyme electrode was obtained at pH 7.0 and 35 °C. The response time of this ACh-sensing system was shown to be 4 s. The linear range of responses to ACh was 0.005–700 μM. This biosensor exhibits excellent anti-interferential abilities and good stability, retaining 50% of its original current even after 4 months. It has been applied for the detection of ACh levels in human serum samples.