Low-temperature remote plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of graphene and characterization of its atomic-level structure†
Graphene has attracted a great deal of research interest owing to its unique properties and many potential applications. Chemical vapor deposition has shown some potential for the growth of large-scale and uniform graphene films; however, a high temperature (over 800 °C) is usually required for such growth. A whole new method for the synthesis of graphene at low temperatures by means of remote plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition is developed in this work. Liquid benzene was used as a carbon source. Large graphene sheets with excellent quality were prepared at a growth temperature as low as 400 °C. The atomic structure of the graphene was characterized by means of aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Hexagonal carbon rings and carbon atoms were observed, indicating a highly crystalline structure of the graphene. These results point to a new technique for the growth of high-quality graphene for potential device applications.