Doping and alloying for improved perovskite solar cells
Doping and/or alloying in the various layers in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is playing a key role in the success of this new photovoltaic (PV) technology. Here we present a brief review of doping and alloying approaches used to enhance the efficacy of the hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite (HOIP) layer, the electron-transporting layer (ETL), the hole-transporting layer (HTL), and the electrode layers in PSCs. While the effectiveness of these approaches is beyond doubt, the fundamental understanding of doping and alloying in the majority of the cases is lacking. This presents vast research opportunities in elucidating the roles of doping and alloying, and the rational design and implementation of these approaches for enhanced PSCs performance.