High performance perovskite solar cells by hybrid chemical vapor deposition†
Organometal halide based perovskites are promising materials for solar cell applications and are rapidly developing with current devices reaching ∼19% efficiency. In this work we introduce a new method of perovskite synthesis by hybrid chemical vapor deposition (HCVD), and demonstrate efficiencies as high as 11.8%. These cells were found to be stable with time, and retained almost the same efficiency after approximately 1100 h storage in dry N2 gas. This method is particularly attractive because of its ability to scale up to industrial levels and the ability to precisely control gas flow rate, temperature, and pressure with high reproducibility. This is the first demonstration of a perovskite solar cell using chemical vapor deposition and there is likely still room for significant optimization in efficiency.