Flame retardant polymer/layered double hydroxide nanocomposites
Recently, there has been rapid growth in research related to the synthesis and application of flame retardant polymer–layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites. In order to outline the potential and to promote further developments in the field we have prepared a critical review of the most recent progress in the area. We discuss the techniques and indices (e.g. micro calorimetery, limiting oxygen index, cone calorimetry and UL-94) for evaluating the flame retardant properties. The flame retardant mechanism of LDHs, the types of polymers studied, the effect of LDH chemical composition and the synergistic effect with other fire retardants are reviewed. It is hoped that this review will not only introduce the synthesis, characterisation and application of polymer–LDH nanocomposites for flame retardancy, but also prompt new discussion on the use of LDH dispersions in polymer-based materials.