Encapsulation of anticancer drug by hydrogen-bonded multilayers of tannic acid†
Tannic acid (TA)-based multilayer assemblies have attracted increasing interest for biomedical applications. Here we explore properties of TA–poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (TA–PVPON) hydrogen-bonded multilayers for drug encapsulation and long-term storage. We demonstrate that the small molecular weight anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), can be successfully loaded into (TA–PVPON) capsules with high encapsulation efficiency. We have also found that the encapsulated DOX can be efficiently stored inside the capsules for the pH range from pH = 7.4 to pH = 5. We show that the chemical and functional stability of TA at neutral and basic pH values is achieved through complexation with PVPON. The UV-vis spectrophotometry and in situ ellipsometry analyses of the hydrogen bonding interactions between TA and PVPON at different pH values reveal pH-dependent behavior of TA–PVPON capsules for the pH range from pH = 7.4 to pH = 5. Increasing deposition pH value from pH = 5 to pH = 7.4 leads to a 2-fold decrease in capsule thickness. However, this trend is reversed when salt concentration of the deposition solutions is increased from 0.01 M to 0.1 M NaCl. We have also demonstrated that the permeability of (TA–PVPON) capsules prepared using low salt deposition conditions and pH = 7.4 can be increased 2-fold by exposure of the capsules to 0.1 M NaCl salt solutions at the same pH. Our work opens new perspectives for design of novel polymer carriers for controlled drug delivery in cancer therapy.