Predictive modeling of post bioprinting structure formation
Cellular particle dynamics (CPD) is an effective computational method to describe the shape evolution and biomechanical relaxation processes in systems composed of micro tissues such as multicellular aggregates. Therefore, CPD is a useful tool to predict the outcome of postprinting structure formation in bioprinting. The predictive power of CPD has been demonstrated for multicellular systems composed of identical volume-conserving spherical and cylindrical bioink units. Experiments and computer simulations were related through an independently developed theoretical formalism based on continuum mechanics. Here we generalize the CPD formalism to (i) include non-identical bioink particles often used in specific bioprinting applications, (ii) describe the more realistic experimental situation in which during the post-printing structure formation via the fusion of spherical bioink units the volume of the system decreases, and (iii) directly connect CPD simulations to the corresponding experiments without the need of the intermediate continuum theory inherently based on simplifying assumptions.