Polymer thermoelectric modules screen-printed on paper
We report organic thermoelectric modules screen-printed on paper by using conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) and silver paste. Our large-area devices provided sufficient power to illuminate light-emitting diodes. This is the first example of thermoelectric modules containing conducting polymers being used to power practical devices. The stability of this proof-of-concept module was tested at 100 °C for over 100 h without any encapsulation. We showed that the decrease in device performance was caused not by the deterioration of the materials but by degradation of the interface between the conducting polymers and silver paste. These results suggest that organic thermoelectric modules could be used to harvest heat energy at low temperature, although the stability of the interface must be improved.