Simple top-down preparation of magnetic Bi0.9Gd0.1Fe1−xTixO3 nanoparticles by ultrasonication of multiferroic bulk material
We present a simple technique to synthesize ultrafine nanoparticles directly from bulk multiferroic perovskite powder. The starting materials, which were ceramic pellets of the nominal compositions Bi0.9Gd0.1Fe1−xTixO3 (x = 0.00–0.20), were prepared initially by a solid state reaction technique, then ground into micrometer-sized powders and mixed with isopropanol or water in an ultrasonic bath. The particle size was studied as a function of sonication time with transmission electron microscopic imaging and electron diffraction that confirmed the formation of a large fraction of single-crystalline nanoparticles with a mean size of 11–13 nm. A significant improvement in the magnetic behavior of Bi0.9Gd0.1Fe1−xTixO3 nanoparticles compared to their bulk counterparts was observed at room temperature. This sonication technique may be considered as a simple and promising route to prepare ultrafine nanoparticles for functional applications.