Er:Yb:NaY2F5O up-converting nanoparticles for sub-tissue fluorescence lifetime thermal sensing
Non-contact thermometry is essential in biomedical studies requiring thermal sensing and imaging with high thermal and spatial resolutions. In this work, we report the potential use of Er:Yb:NaYF4 and Er:Yb:NaY2F5O up-conversion nanoparticles as thermal sensors by means of lifetime based luminescent thermometry. We demonstrate how Er:Yb:NaY2F5O nanocrystals present a higher thermal sensitivity than the Er:Yb:NaYF4 ones and that their lifetime thermal coefficient is comparable to those corresponding to other nano-sized luminescent systems already used for high resolution lifetime fluorescence thermal sensing. We evaluate the potential use of Er:Yb:NaY2F5O nanoparticles as lifetime based thermal probes by providing the first experimental evidence on sub-tissue lifetime fluorescence thermal sensing by using up-conversion nanoparticles in an ex vivo experiment.