Solvothermally exfoliated fluorographene for high-performance lithium primary batteries
High-quality fluorographene (FG) was prepared by solvothermal exfoliation of fluorinated graphite (F-graphite) through intercalation of acetonitrile and chloroform with low boiling points. High-yield production of FG was demonstrated by wrinkled few-layered structures with disordered edges and poor regularity along the stacking direction. X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra indicated that the intercalation of chloroform led to the partial transformation from covalent C–F bonds to semi-ionic C–F bonds. A lithium primary battery (Li-battery) using a FG cathode exhibited a remarkable discharge rate performance because of good Li+ diffusion and charge mobility through nanosheets. FG nanosheets exfoliated using chloroform showed a high specific capacity of 520 mA h g−1 and a voltage platform of 2.18 V at a current density of 1 C, accompanied by a maximum power density of 4038 W kg−1 at 3 C, which is almost four times higher than that of F-graphite. The results indicate that the solvothermal exfoliation using a low-boiling-point solvent is a facile, efficient and high-yield approach to prepare high-purity FG nanosheets for high-performance Li-batteries.