Photocatalysts with internal electric fields
The photocatalytic activity of materials for water splitting is limited by the recombination of photogenerated electron–hole pairs as well as the back-reaction of intermediate species. This review concentrates on the use of electric fields within catalyst particles to mitigate the effects of recombination and back-reaction and to increase photochemical reactivity. Internal electric fields in photocatalysts can arise from ferroelectric phenomena, p–n junctions, polar surface terminations, and polymorph junctions. The manipulation of internal fields through the creation of charged interfaces in hierarchically structured materials is a promising strategy for the design of improved photocatalysts.