A one-pot biosynthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/bacterial cellulose (BC) nanocomposites†
Here, we report for the first time a one-pot in situ biosynthetic method to fabricate structurally controllable bacterial cellulose (BC)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites. Graphene oxide (GO) was highly reduced during a standard autoclave process using a traditional mannitol culture medium as the reducing agent. The RGO sheets prepared exhibit a high carbon to oxygen ratio of 3.1, as compared to 1.8 for GO determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity of the RGO was found to be 23.75 S m−1. The final BC/RGO composites were developed in three distinct forms: sealed structures in water, aerogels characterized by a porous cross-section and an aligned longitudinal structure, and films embedded within the RGO sheets. Because of the simplicity and non-toxic nature of this work, this process can be used in biomedical and bioelectronics applications, which can be placed within the context of novel biocompatible materials.