In vitro fermentation of spent turmeric powder with a mixed culture of pig faecal bacteria†
The fermentation potential of spent turmeric was studied in in vitro swine faecal batch cultures. The spent turmeric residue (the enzyme-resistant fraction from spent turmeric, EST) was obtained through the use of the digestive enzymes amyloglucosidase and pancreatin and compared to cellulose and high-amylose starch (HAS) as carbon sources. EST showed significant increases in total anaerobes, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and lactic acid bacteria populations compared to cellulose at 12, 24 and 48 h, and the total anaerobic level in the HAS group was significantly higher than that in the cellulose group at 24 and 48 h. However, a significant decrease in the coliform population was only found in the HAS group compared to the cellulose group at 48 h. The total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the EST and HAS groups were significantly higher than that in the cellulose group at 12 h and 48 h. However, there was no significant difference in the total SCFA concentration between the EST and HAS groups at 12 h and 48 h. Ammonia and pH levels in the EST and HAS groups were significantly lower than those in the cellulose group at 24 and 48 h, but there was no significant difference between the EST and HAS groups. These results indicate that the fermentation potential of the enzyme-resistant fraction from spent turmeric is comparable to that of commercially established resistant starch.