Anti-obesity and anti-insulin resistance effects of tomato vinegar beverage in diet-induced obese mice
This study investigated the mechanism of processed tomato vinegar beverage (TVB)-mediated anti-obesity and anti-insulin resistance effects in high-fat diet (HF)-induced obese mice. Oral administration of TVB (14 mL kg−1 body weight) to HF-fed mice for 6 weeks effectively reduced the body and visceral fat weight and significantly lowered plasma free fatty acid, triglyceride and hepatic triglyceride levels. TVB significantly increased fecal triglyceride excretion, both phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α protein levels in the liver, which were associated with increased fatty acid β-oxidation and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities in HF-fed mice. TVB improved glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia and HOMA-IR levels in the HF + TVB group compared to the HF group. Additionally, TVB significantly increased glucokinase activity and decreased glucose-6-phosphatase activity in the liver, which enhanced glucose metabolism in obese mice. These results suggest that TVB prevents visceral obesity and insulin resistance via AMPK/PPARα-mediated fatty acid and glucose oxidation.