A review of available analytical technologies for qualitative and quantitative determination of nitramines
This review aims to summarize the available analytical methods in the open literature for the determination of some aliphatic and cyclic nitramines. Nitramines covered in this review are the ones that can be formed from the use of amines in post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) plants and end up in the environment. Since the literature is quite scarce regarding the determination of nitramines in aqueous and soil samples, methods for determination of nitramines in other matrices have also been included. Since the nitramines are found in complex matrices and/or in very low concentration, an extraction step is often necessary before their determination. Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) using dichloromethane and solid phase extraction (SPE) with an activated carbon based material have been the two most common extraction methods. Gas chromatography (GC) or reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) has been used often combined with mass spectrometry (MS) in the final determination step. Presently there is no comprehensive method available that can be used for determination of all nitramines included in this review. The lowest concentration limit of quantification (cLOQ) is in the ng L−1 range, however, most methods appear to have a cLOQ in the μg L−1 range, if the cLOQ has been given.