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Issue 2, 2014

Dye sensitized solar cells as optically random photovoltaic media

Author affiliations

Abstract

In order to enhance optical absorption, light trapping by multiple scattering is commonly achieved in dye sensitized solar cells by adding particles of a different sort. Herein we propose a theoretical method to find the structural parameters (particle number density and size) that optimize the conversion efficiency of electrodes of different thicknesses containing spherical inclusions of diverse composition. Our work provides a theoretical framework in which the response of solar cells containing diffuse scattering particles can be rationalized. Optical simulations are performed by combining a Monte Carlo approach with Mie theory, in which the angular distribution of scattered light is accounted for. Several types of scattering centers, such as anatase, gold and silver particles, as well as cavities, are considered and their effect compared. Estimates of photovoltaic performance, insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed enhancements, and guidelines to improve the cell design are provided. We discuss the results in terms of light transport in weakly disordered optical media and find that the observed variations between the optimum scattering configurations attained for different electrode thicknesses can be understood as the result of the randomization of the light propagation direction at different depths within the active layer. A primary conclusion of our study is that photovoltaic performance is optimised when the scattering properties of the film are adjusted so that the distance over which incident photons are randomized is comparable to the thickness of the film. This simple relationship could also be used as a design rule to attain the optimum optical design in other photovoltaic materials.

Graphical abstract: Dye sensitized solar cells as optically random photovoltaic media

Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
31 Jul 2013
Accepted
08 Nov 2013
First published
11 Nov 2013

This article is Open Access

Energy Environ. Sci., 2014,7, 689-697
Article type
Communication

Dye sensitized solar cells as optically random photovoltaic media

F. E. Gálvez, P. R. F. Barnes, J. Halme and H. Míguez, Energy Environ. Sci., 2014, 7, 689 DOI: 10.1039/C3EE42587H

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