Nanoscale optical probes for cellular imaging
Nanomaterials with unique optical properties have shown great promise as probes for cellular imaging. Based on these properties, a wide range of plasmonic, fluorescent and Raman probes have been designed and prepared. Nanomaterials of different sizes and shapes have also been functionalized with various types of biomolecules, such as antibodies, DNA or RNA, which are actively exploited to realize targeted imaging. In this review, we will summarize recent advances in using functional nanomaterials for imaging, primarily cellular imaging. These nanomaterials are categorized based on their conducting properties, i.e. conductors, semiconductors and insulators.