Jump to main content
Jump to site search
PLANNED MAINTENANCE Close the message box

Scheduled maintenance work on Wednesday 27th March 2019 from 11:00 AM to 1:00 PM (GMT).

During this time our website performance may be temporarily affected. We apologise for any inconvenience this might cause and thank you for your patience.

Issue 31, 2014
Previous Article Next Article

Solution-mediated phase transformation of uric acid dihydrate

Author affiliations


Various crystalline phases of uric acid are frequently identified components of human kidney stones, including anhydrous uric acid (UA) and uric acid dihydrate (UAD). Herein we report a quantitative study of the solution-mediated phase transformation of metastable UAD to UA as a function of pH as well as in model urine solution. Using a combination of X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and optical microscopy techniques, the UAD to UA transformation was found to go to completion within 48 hours at 37 °C in buffered solutions with pH between 4.0–6.5 with no evidence for intermediate crystalline phases. In solutions with pH > 6.8, UAD transformation to a different monosodium urate monohydrate phase becomes dominant. In artificial urine solution, the transformation occurs on a slightly faster timescale and results in smaller UA crystals. Seeding and saturation experiments indicate that the rate-limiting step in the overall transformation is the dissolution of UAD. The kinetics of these transformation processes suggest that interconversions between various solid state forms of uric acid are relevant under the physiologic conditions which lead to stone formation.

Graphical abstract: Solution-mediated phase transformation of uric acid dihydrate

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Publication details

The article was received on 20 Mar 2014, accepted on 13 May 2014 and first published on 13 May 2014

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C4CE00574K
Author version
Download author version (PDF)
Citation: CrystEngComm, 2014,16, 7278-7284

  •   Request permissions

    Solution-mediated phase transformation of uric acid dihydrate

    J. B. Presores and J. A. Swift, CrystEngComm, 2014, 16, 7278
    DOI: 10.1039/C4CE00574K

Search articles by author