Peptide and antibody ligands for renal targeting: nanomedicine strategies for kidney disease
The kidney is one of the body's main filtration organs, and hence, opportunity exists for designing nanomedicine that can naturally accumulate in the kidneys for renal diseases. In addition to traditional physiochemical properties for kidney accumulation, such as size and charge, synthesized nanoparticles can be conjugated with targeting ligands which further home the nanocarriers to cell types of interest. In this review, we highlight key studies that have shown success in utilizing peptide- or antibody-based ligands in nanoparticles to target the glomerulus, podocytes, or renal tubule cells in the kidney. In addition, other ligand candidates which have shown renal affinity, but have not yet been integrated into a nanoparticle are also presented. These studies can provide insight into the design of novel clinical solutions for improved detection, prevention, and treatment of renal diseases using nanomedicine efforts.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Emerging Investigators 2017