All-plastic solar cells with a high photovoltaic dynamic range†
We report on semitransparent air-processed all-plastic solar cells, fabricated from vacuum-free processes, comprising two polymer electrodes, a polymeric work-function modification layer and a polymer:fullerene photoactive layer. The active layer and the top PEDOT:PSS electrode were prepared by sequential film-transfer lamination on polyethylenimine-modified PEDOT:PSS bottom electrodes. The transferring of films offers ease of layer patterning and the misalignment of defects in the different layers resulting from the additive film transfer lamination process yields high shunt resistance values of 108 ohm cm2. Consequently, all-plastic solar cells fabricated with this process exhibit very low reverse bias dark current and can operate in the photovoltaic quadrant with light irradiance varying over five orders of magnitude. The analysis of the values of the open-circuit voltage as a function of light irradiance over that wide dynamic range points toward an ideality factor of n = 1.82 and a reverse saturation current density of 6.2 × 10−11 A cm−2 for solar cells with an active layer comprised of a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and an indene fullerene bis-adduct.