Anisotropic O vacancy formation and diffusion in LaMnO3
Anisotropy effects in solid oxide fuel cells are typically not considered because of high operating temperatures. Focusing on the prototypical perovskite LaMnO3, we apply first-principles calculations to demonstrate that this approximation is no longer valid when the operating temperature is reduced and discuss the consequences for the material properties. In addition, we show that strain and Sr doping can be used to further increase the anisotropy. Tensile strain promotes both the O vacancy formation and diffusion in pristine and Sr doped LaMnO3, while Sr doping enhances the O vacancy formation. Both in LaMnO3 and La0.75Sr0.25MnO3 the O diffusion is found to be favorable in the  and  directions.