A multifunctional phosphite-containing electrolyte for 5 V-class LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathodes with superior electrochemical performance†
We report a highly promising organophosphorus compound with an organic substituent, tris(trimethylsilyl)phosphite (TMSP), to improve the electrochemical performance of 5 V-class LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode materials. Our investigation reveals that TMSP alleviates the decomposition of LiPF6 by hydrolysis, effectively eliminates HF promoting Mn/Ni dissolution from the cathode, and forms a protective layer on the cathode surface against severe electrolyte decomposition at high voltages. Remarkable improvements in the cycling stability and rate capability of high voltage cathodes were achieved in the TMSP-containing electrolyte. After 100 cycles at 60 °C, the discharge capacity retention was 73% in the baseline electrolyte, whereas the TMSP-added electrolyte maintained 90% of its initial discharge capacity. In addition, the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode with TMSP delivers a superior discharge capacity of 105 mA h g−1 at a high rate of 3 C and an excellent capacity retention of 81% with a high coulombic efficiency of over 99.6% is exhibited for a graphite/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 full cell after 100 cycles at 30 °C.