Graphene–BODIPY as a photocatalyst in the photocatalytic–biocatalytic coupled system for solar fuel production from CO2†
The utilization of CO2 for production of solar fuels/chemicals is gaining increasing importance due to worldwide fossil-fuel shortage and global warming. As a means to achieve this, we herein report on the synthesis and development of a graphene-based visible light active photocatalyst (CCG–BODIPY) which is chemically converted graphene (CCG) covalently bonded to a light harvesting BODIPY molecule (1-picolylamine-2-aminophenyl-3-oxy-phenyl-4,4′-difluoro-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-2,6-diethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-triazine). The photocatalyst-biocatalyst coupled system developed using CCG–BODIPY as photocatalyst functions in a highly efficient manner, leading to high NADH regeneration (54.02 ± 0.61%), followed by its consumption in exclusive formic acid production (144.2 ± 1.8 μmol) from CO2. The present research endeavour highlights the development and application of a graphene based photocatalyst for direct solar fuel formation from carbon dioxide.