Total internal reflection spectroscopy for studying soft matter†
Total internal reflection (TIR) spectroscopy is a widely used technique to study soft matter at interfaces. This tutorial review aims to provide researchers with an overview of the principles, experimental design and applications of TIR spectroscopy to enable them to understand how this class of techniques might be used in their research. It also highlights limitations and pitfalls of TIR techniques, which will assist readers in critically analysing the literature. Techniques covered include attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), TIR fluorescence, TIR Raman scattering and cavity-enhanced techniques. Other related techniques are briefly described.