Driving a planar model system into the 3rd dimension: generation and control of curved pore-spanning membrane arrays†
The generation of a regular array of micrometre-sized pore-spanning membranes that protrude from the underlying surface as a function of osmotic pressure is reported. Giant unilamellar vesicles are spread onto non-functionalized Si/SiO2 substrates containing a highly ordered array of cavities with pore diameters of 850 nm, an interpore distance of 4 μm and a pore depth of 10 μm. The shape of the resulting pore-spanning membranes is controlled by applying an osmotic pressure difference between the bulk solution and the femtoliter-sized cavity underneath each membrane. By applying Young–Laplace's law assuming moderate lateral membrane tensions, the response of the membranes to the osmotic pressure difference can be theoretically well described. Protruded pore-spanning membranes containing the receptor lipid PIP2 specifically bind the ENTH domain of epsin resulting in an enlargement of the protrusions and disappearance as a result of ENTH-domain induced defects in the membranes. These results are discussed in the context of an ENTH-domain induced reduction of lateral membrane tension and formation of defects as a result of helix insertion of the protein in the bilayer.