Inertial rise in short capillary tubes
The behavior of liquid that rises to the top of a short tube depends on the Weber number We defined as the ratio of the kinetic energy of the liquid and a reference surface energy. In optimal experiments with diethyl ether, the meniscus of the rising liquid inverts and spreads onto the external surface of the tube when We ≳ 1. If We ≲ 1, the meniscus remains pinned at the top of the tube. For inertial capillary rise dynamics the maximum kinetic energy is achieved when the height of the liquid column is 3/4 of the equilibrium rise height and diverges with decreasing gravitational acceleration.