Electrospinning: a facile technique for fabricating polymeric nanofibers doped with carbon nanotubes and metallic nanoparticles for sensor applications
The increased interest in electrospinning (ES) and its recent applications for fabrication of sensors and biosensors is driven by the development of materials science and nanotechnology. Compared with other fabrication processes, ES is versatile and superior for producing and constructing ordered and complex nanofibrous materials. The introduction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) into the electrospun polymeric nanofibers (NFs) extends their potential applications as electrical and electrochemical sensors and biosensors. In this review, we summarize the recent progress using the ES technique to fabricate different polymeric NFs doped with CNTs and various MNPs, as well as their applications for detecting alcohols, H2S, H2, glucose, H2O2, and urea. The fabrication, intrinsic fundamentals, and optimization design of the sensors were introduced and discussed in detail. In addition, the improvements and challenges of ES techniques were mentioned. It is expected that this review will promote development in the ES field and guide studies to create nanofibrous hybrid materials as novel sensors and biosensors.