Electrode-embedded nanopores for label-free single-molecule sequencing by electric currents
Electrode-embedded nanopores have been developed to realize label-free, low-cost, and high-throughput DNA sequencers and are recognized as a promising platform along with solid-state and biological nanopore devices for use in personalized medicine based on genomic information. Rapid and high-speed measurements for single nucleotide molecules are enabled through direct electrical probes and control without either amplification processes or chemical reagents. This new nanoarchitecture can sequence DNA and RNA molecules owing to the changes in the tunneling current conducted via single-base molecules passing through the nanopores. The method for controlling the translocation speed of single DNA and RNA molecules is a critical technology for reading single-base molecules with high accuracy and throughput.