Recent developments in palladium catalysed carbonylation reactions
Recently, carbonylation reactions have gained considerable interest as they are becoming a versatile tool in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and their intermediates. Nowadays, a plethora of transition metal catalysts are available for the synthesis of various functional groups like ureas, carbamates, oxamates, oxamides, α-keto amides, ketones, esters, etc. using carbonylation methodology. Several carbonylation reactions such as aminocarbonylation, alkoxycarbonylation, double carbonylation and oxidative carbonylation, provide efficient and attractive alternatives to the conventional synthetic routes on a laboratory or industrial scale. Oxidative carbonylation is an important reaction as it allows direct carbonylative C–H bond activation. A double carbonylation reaction provides a one step alternative route for the synthesis of α-keto amides, oxamides, and oxamates. It also eliminates the use of conventional thermally unstable and toxic reagents like oxalyl chloride. Several recent studies have focused on the various aspects of these reactions, including catalyst–product separation, and catalyst recoverability and reusability. In view of this, developments in anchoring homogeneous catalysts using various techniques like biphasic catalysis and supported liquid phase catalysis are gaining importance. Carbonylation routes using these techniques are simple, efficient, economical, avoid the use of ligands, and give the desired products in excellent yields. The use of phosphine ligands is disadvantageous as it leads to air/moisture sensitivity, tedious work-up procedures and high work-up costs. Several phosphine-free carbonylation routes eliminate the use of phosphine ligands, and provide economical and simple methods for these transformations. In this review we have summarized the recent trends in carbonylative transformations, which have undergone a rapid development.