Light extraction enhancement with radiation pattern shaping of LEDs by waveguiding nanorods with impedance-matching tips
Syringe-like ZnO nanorods (NRs) were fabricated on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) by a hydrothermal method. Without sacrificing the electrical performances of LEDs, syringe-like NRs can enhance light extraction capability by 10.5% at 20 mA and shape the radiation profile with a view angle collimated from 136° to 121°. By performing optical experiments and simulation, it is found that the superior light extraction efficiency with a more collimated radiation pattern is attributed to the waveguiding effect of NRs and the mitigation of abrupt index change by the tapered ends of syringe-like ZnO NRs. This work demonstrates the importance of the nanostructure morphology in LED performances and provides the architecture design guidelines of nanostructures to a variety of optical devices.