Multi-scale strategy to eradicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa on surfaces using solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with free fatty acids
Infections are both frequent and costly in hospitals around the world, leading to longer hospital stays, overuse of antibiotics, and excessive costs to the healthcare system. Moreover, antibiotic resistant organisms, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa are increasing in frequency, leading to 1.7 million infections per year in USA hospitals, and 99 000 deaths, both due to the evolution of antibiotic resistance and the formation of biofilms on medical devices. In particular, respiratory infections are costly, deadly to 4.5 million persons per year worldwide, and can spread to the lungs through the placement of endotracheal tubing. In this study, towards a reduction in infections, solid lipid nanoparticles were formulated from free fatty acids, or natural lipophilic constituents found in tissues of the body. A strategy was developed to target infections by producing coatings made of non-toxic chemistries lauric acid and oleic acid delivered by core–shell solid lipid nanoparticles that act against bacteria by multiple mechanisms at the nanoscale, including disruption of bacteria leading to DNA release, and reducing the adhesion of dead bacteria to ∼1%. This is the first such study to explore an anti-infection surface relying on these multi-tier strategies at the nanoscale.