Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence of periodic structures – a comparison between X-ray standing waves and geometrical optics calculations
Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence spectra of nano-scaled periodic line structures were recorded at the four crystal monochromator beamline in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II. For different tilt angles between the lines and the plane of incidence of the monochromatic synchrotron radiation, spectral features are observed which can be understood and explained with calculations of the emerging X-ray standing wave (XSW) field. On the other hand, there are structures, i.e., pronounced modulations above the substrate's critical angle of external total reflection, which are not included in the XSW concept. Novel geometrical optics calculations can reproduce these structures taking the sample's specific geometric conditions into account.