The functional evaluation of waste yuzu (Citrus junos) seeds
We have succeeded in extracting a large amount of expensive limonoids and the high total antioxidant capability yuzu seed oil from waste yuzu seed by simple methods. Yuzu seeds contain higher amounts of fat-soluble limonoid aglycone (330.6 mg g−1 of dry seed), water-soluble limonoid glycoside (452.0 mg g−1 of dry seed), and oil (40 mg g−1 of green seed) than other citrus fruits. The antioxidant activities of yuzu seed aglycone, glycoside, and seed oil were evaluated in vitro. The potential antioxidant activity in oil solution, diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, and hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity effects of the seed extracts were also investigated. The antioxidant activity of yuzu seed oil was two times that of grapefruit seed oil, which has high activity. Yuzu glycoside produced the same high antioxidant activity as Luo Han Guo glycoside.