Copper(I)- and copper(0)-promoted homocoupling and homocoupling–hydrodehalogenation reactions of dihalogenoclathrochelate precursors for C–C conjugated iron(II) bis-cage complexes
Iron(II) dibromo- and diiodoclathrochelates undergo copper(I)-promoted reductive homocoupling in HMPA at 70–80 °C leading to C–C conjugated dibromo- and diiodo-bis-clathrochelates in high yields. Under the same conditions, their dichloroclathrochelate analog does not undergo the same homocoupling reaction, so the target dichloro-bis-cage product was obtained in high yield via dimerization of its heterodihalogenide iodochloromonomacrobicyclic precursor. The use of NMP as a solvent at 120–140 °C gave the mixture of bis-clathrochelates resulting from a tandem homocoupling–hydrodehalogenation reaction: the initial acetonitrile copper(I) solvato-complex at a high temperature underwent re-solvatation and disproportionation leading to Cu(II) ions and nano-copper, which promoted the hydrodehalogenation process even at room temperature. The most probable pathway of this reaction in situ includes hydrodehalogenation of the already formed dihalogeno-bis-clathrochelate via the formation of reduced anion radical intermediates. As a result, chemical transformations of the iron(II) dihalogenoclathrochelates in the presence of an acetonitrile copper(I) solvato-complex were found to depend both on the nature of halogen atoms in their ribbed chelate fragments and on reaction conditions (i.e. solvent and temperature). The C–C conjugated iron(II) dihalogeno-bis-clathrochelates easily undergo nucleophilic substitution with various N,S-nucleophiles giving ribbed-functionalized bis-cage species. These iron(II) complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and by X-ray diffraction; their electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic voltammetry. The isomeric shift values in 57Fe Mössbauer spectra of such cage compounds allowed identifying them as low-spin iron(II) complexes, while those of the quadrupole splitting are the evidence for a significant TP distortion of their FeN6-coordination polyhedra. As follows from CV data, the C–C conjugated iron(II) bis-clathrochelates undergo stepwise electrochemical reduction and oxidation giving mixed-valence FeIIFeI and FeIIFeIII bis-cage intermediates.