A review of catalysts for the electroreduction of carbon dioxide to produce low-carbon fuels
This paper reviews recent progress made in identifying electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction to produce low-carbon fuels, including CO, HCOOH/HCOO−, CH2O, CH4, H2C2O4/HC2O4−, C2H4, CH3OH, CH3CH2OH and others. The electrocatalysts are classified into several categories, including metals, metal alloys, metal oxides, metal complexes, polymers/clusters, enzymes and organic molecules. The catalyts' activity, product selectivity, Faradaic efficiency, catalytic stability and reduction mechanisms during CO2 electroreduction have received detailed treatment. In particular, we review the effects of electrode potential, solution–electrolyte type and composition, temperature, pressure, and other conditions on these catalyst properties. The challenges in achieving highly active and stable CO2 reduction electrocatalysts are analyzed, and several research directions for practical applications are proposed, with the aim of mitigating performance degradation, overcoming additional challenges, and facilitating research and development in this area.