Water oxidation energy diagrams for photosystem II for different protonation states, and the effect of removing calcium†
The main parts of the water oxidation mechanism in photosystem II have now been established both from theory and experiments. Still, there are minor questions remaining. One of them concerns the charge and the protonation state of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC). Previously, theory and experiments have agreed that the two water derived ligands on the outer manganese should be one hydroxide and one water. In the present study it is investigated whether both of them could be water. This question is addressed by a detailed study of energy diagrams, but in this context it is more conclusive to compare the redox potential of the OEC to the one of TyrZ. Both procedures lead to the conclusion that one of the ligands is a hydroxide. Another question concerns the protonation of the second shell His337, where the results are more ambiguous. The final part of the present study describes results when calcium is removed from the OEC. Even though protons enter to compensate the charge of the missing Ca2+, the redox potential and the pKa value of the OEC change dramatically and prevent the progress after S2.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Photosynthesis: From Natural to Artificial