The electronegativity equalization method fused with molecular mechanics: a fluctuating charge and flexible body potential function for [Emim][Gly] ionic liquids†
Recently, experimental and theoretical studies on amino acid ionic liquid (AAIL) systems have attracted much attention. A transferable intermolecular potential approach that includes fluctuating charges and a flexible body based on a combination of the electronegativity equalization method and molecular mechanics (EEM/MM), and its application to an AAIL system containing 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([Emim]+) and glycine ([Gly]−) are explored and tested in this study. A consistent integration of EEM with MM requires the input of the EEM charges of all atoms into the MM intermolecular electrostatic interaction term. Compared with ionic liquid (IL) force fields, the EEM/MM model has an outstanding feature: the EEM/MM model not only presents the electrostatic interaction of atoms and their changes in response to different ambient environments but also introduces “the H-bond interaction region” in which a new parameter kHB(RHB) is used to describe the electrostatic interaction of hydrogen atoms in [Emim]+ and oxygen atoms in [Gly]−, which can form hydrogen bonds. The EEM/MM model gives quite accurate predictions for gas-phase state properties of [Emim]+, [Gly]−, and ion pairs, such as optimized geometries, dipole moments, vibrational frequencies, and cluster interaction energies. Due to its explicit description of charges and hydrogen bonds, the EEM/MM model also performs well for the liquid-phase properties of [Emim][Gly] under ambient conditions. The calculated properties, such as density, heat of vaporization, the self-diffusion coefficient, and ionic conductivity, are fairly consistent with available experimental results.