Synthesis of hollow rare-earth compound nanoparticles by a universal sacrificial template method
A universal technique to synthesize hollow nanoparticles including spindle-like YVO4, urchin-like YPO4, and bowl-like NaYF4 by a sacrificial process utilizing the Y(OH)CO3 template is described. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption–desorption measurements reveal that hollow nanoparticles with a controllable size are produced due to the Kirkendall phenomenon. Bright fluorescence can be obtained by doping the nanoparticles with lanthanide ions such as Eu3+, Ce3+/Tb3+, and Yb3+/Er3+. These hollow nanoparticles exhibiting bright fluorescence have potential in fluorescence-guided drug-delivery applications and this universal and effective technique can be employed to fabricate various types of hollow materials.