Personalized protein coronas: a “key” factor at the nanobiointerface
It is now well known that the primary interactions of biological entities (e.g., tissues and cells) with nanoparticles (NPs) are strongly influenced by the protein composition of the “corona” (i.e., the NP surface attached proteins). The composition of the corona strongly depends on the protein source (e.g., human plasma). Because the protein source determines the NP corona, it is reasonable to hypothesize that humans with specific disease(s) may have specific NP coronas. To test this hypothesis, we incubated two different hydrophobic/hydrophilic types of NPs (polystyrene and silica) with plasma from human subjects with different diseases and medical conditions (e.g., breast cancer, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, rheumatism, fauvism, smoking, hemodialysis, thalassemia, hemophilia A and B, pregnancy, common cold and hypofibrinogenemia). Our results demonstrate that the type of disease has a crucial role in the protein composition of the NP corona. Based on these results, we introduce the concept of the “personalized protein corona” (PPC) as a determinant factor in nano-biomedical science. This study will help researchers rationally design experiments based on the “personalized protein corona” for clinical and biological applications.