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Issue 38, 2013
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Air-stable inverted structure of hybrid solar cells using a cesium-doped ZnO electron transport layer prepared by a sol–gel process

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Abstract

We have developed an air-stable inverted structure of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) : cadmium selenide (CdSe) hybrid solar cells using a cesium-doped ZnO (ZnO:Cs) electron transport layer. The ZnO:Cs layer was simply prepared at low temperature by the sol–gel process using a ZnO solution containing cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3). With increasing Cs-doping concentration, the conduction band edge of ZnO is decreased, as confirmed by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. The energy level of ZnO:Cs is effective for electron transport from CdSe. Consequently, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the inverted P3HT : CdSe hybrid solar cells using the ZnO:Cs electron transport layer is 1.14%, which is significantly improved over that (0.43%) of another device without Cs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed that the amount of CdSe on the substrate (or the bottom surface) is larger compared with the air (or top) surface regardless of the P3HT : CdSe weight ratio. The vertically inhomogeneous distribution of CdSe in the hybrid solar cells gives better charge transport from CdSe to ZnO:Cs in the inverted structure of the device compared with that in the normal structure. As a result, the inverted hybrid solar cell consisting of 1 : 4 (wt/wt) P3HT : CdSe shows the best efficiency, while the best efficiency of a normal hybrid solar cell is achieved at 1 : 9 (wt/wt) P3HT : CdSe.

Graphical abstract: Air-stable inverted structure of hybrid solar cells using a cesium-doped ZnO electron transport layer prepared by a sol–gel process

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Article information


Submitted
21 Jun 2013
Accepted
01 Aug 2013
First published
01 Aug 2013

J. Mater. Chem. A, 2013,1, 11802-11808
Article type
Paper

Air-stable inverted structure of hybrid solar cells using a cesium-doped ZnO electron transport layer prepared by a sol–gel process

S. Kwon, K. Lim, M. Shim, H. C. Moon, J. Park, G. Jeon, J. Shin, K. Cho, T. Lee and J. K. Kim, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2013, 1, 11802
DOI: 10.1039/C3TA12425H

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