Electrospun amino-functionalized PDMS as a novel SPME sorbent for the speciation of inorganic and organometallic arsenic species†
Sol–gel based amine-functionalized SPME fibers (PDMS-weak anion exchanger) were prepared and used for direct mode extraction of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and arsenate (As(V)) from aqueous solutions followed by HPLC-ICPMS determination. Two different methods of coating were employed: (i) electrospinning and (ii) dip coating. Electrospinning was used for the first time for preparation of sol–gel based SPME fibers and was found to be superior in terms of extracted amount of arsenicals, coating homogeneity, accessibility of amine groups on the surface, and preparation time for a single fiber. Various parameters such as solution pH, extraction time, agitation speed, extraction temperature, and ionic strength were studied. Optimum extraction conditions were determined as pH of 5.0, extraction time of 30 min, agitation speed of 700 rpm, and extraction temperature of 20 °C. Extraction ability of the novel coating decreased by the addition of NaCl as a consequence of the competition between anionic arsenic species and chloride ions for active sites of the weak anion exchanger. This novel sol–gel coating prepared by electrospinning was found to be promising for SPME applications. Vibrational spectroscopy revealed the alignment of PDMS chains by elongational force under electrospinning process. The chain alignment accordingly orients the pendant amino functional groups perpendicular to the fiber surface, which may develop the free active functional groups available to the medium and lead to the enhancement of the extraction performance. Moreover, the proposed coating strategy through electrospinning might be able to break new ground for various applications in analytical chemistry as well as other disciplines.