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Issue 10, 2013
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Rational morphology control of β-NaYF4:Yb,Er/Tm upconversion nanophosphors using a ligand, an additive, and lanthanide doping

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Abstract

We report the systematic control of the morphology of β-NaYF4:Yb,Er/Tm upconversion nanophosphors (UCNPs) from large spheres (37.9 nm) to rods (length = 60.1 nm, width = 21.5 nm) and from rods to hexagonal prisms (length = 48.8 nm, width = 44.0 nm) or small spheres (14.0 nm) by the use of a surfactant, an additive, and lanthanide doping. Increasing the ratio of oleic acid (OA) to 1-octadecene (ODE) caused a decrease in the size of the UCNPs, and increasing the OA/ODE ratio above a critical value caused the particle shape to change from a sphere to a rod. The length-to-width aspect ratio (AR) of upconversion nanorods (UCNRs) was finely manipulated from 1.28 to 2.80. The rounded tips of the UCNRs were flattened by adding Cl ions, and the UCNRs changed to hexagonal prisms with a controllable AR depending on the quantity of Cl ions. Additionally, the morphology of the β-NaYF4-based UCNPs was controlled by lanthanide doping. The size and AR of the UCNRs decreased with Gd3+ doping, and the UCNRs ultimately transformed into small spheres (14.0 nm) with high monodispersity. Doping with Ce3+ ions also decreased the AR of the UCNRs from 2.80 to 1.27. In addition, highly transparent polymer composites for 3D volumetric displays were fabricated by blending high-AR β-NaYF4:Yb,Er/Tm UCNRs with polydimethylsiloxane. These composites exhibited bright green and blue upconversion light during excitation with 980 nm light.

Graphical abstract: Rational morphology control of β-NaYF4:Yb,Er/Tm upconversion nanophosphors using a ligand, an additive, and lanthanide doping

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
06 Jan 2013
Accepted
27 Feb 2013
First published
08 Mar 2013

Nanoscale, 2013,5, 4242-4251
Article type
Paper

Rational morphology control of β-NaYF4:Yb,Er/Tm upconversion nanophosphors using a ligand, an additive, and lanthanide doping

H. Na, K. Woo, K. Lim and H. S. Jang, Nanoscale, 2013, 5, 4242
DOI: 10.1039/C3NR00080J

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