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Issue 1, 2013
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New routes to Cu(I)/Cu nanocatalysts for the multicomponent click synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles

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Abstract

An array of copper and copper–zinc based nanoparticles (NPs) have been fabricated employing a variety of polymeric capping agents. Analysis by TEM, XRPD and XPS suggests that by manipulating reagent, reductant and solvent conditions it is possible to achieve materials that are mono-/narrow disperse with mean particle sizes in the ≤10 nm regime. Oxidative stability in air is achieved for monometallic NPs using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) anti-agglomerant in conjunction with a variety of reducing conditions. In contrast, those encapsulated by either poly(1-vinylpyrrolidin-2-one) (PVP) or poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVPy) rapidly show Cu2O formation, with all data suggesting progressive oxidation from Cu to Cu@Cu2O core–shell structure and finally Cu2O. Bimetallic copper–zinc systems, reveal metal segregation and the formation of Cu2O and ZnO. Catalysts have been screened in the synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles through multicomponent azide–alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. Whereas PMMA- and PVPy-coating results in reduced catalytic activity, those protected by PVP are highly active, with quantitative triazole syntheses achieved at room temperature and with catalyst loadings of 0.03 mol% metal for Cu and CuZn systems prepared using NaH2PO2, N2H4 or NaBH4 reductants.

Graphical abstract: New routes to Cu(i)/Cu nanocatalysts for the multicomponent click synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles

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Publication details

The article was received on 03 Sep 2012, accepted on 30 Oct 2012 and first published on 05 Nov 2012


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C2NR32570E
Citation: Nanoscale, 2013,5, 342-350
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    New routes to Cu(I)/Cu nanocatalysts for the multicomponent click synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles

    P. Abdulkin, Y. Moglie, B. R. Knappett, D. A. Jefferson, M. Yus, F. Alonso and A. E. H. Wheatley, Nanoscale, 2013, 5, 342
    DOI: 10.1039/C2NR32570E

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