Network motifs provide signatures that characterize metabolism
Motifs are repeating patterns that determine the local properties of networks. In this work, we characterized all 3-node motifs using enzyme commission numbers of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology to show that motif abundance is related to biochemical function. Further, we present a comparative analysis of motif distributions in the metabolic networks of 21 species across six kingdoms of life. We found the distribution of motif abundances to be similar between species, but unique across cellular organelles. Finally, we show that motifs are able to capture inter-species differences in metabolic networks and that molecular differences between some biological species are reflected by the distribution of motif abundances in metabolic networks.