Issue 1, 2013

Advanced intermediate-temperature Na–S battery


In this study, we reported an intermediate-temperature (∼150 °C) sodium–sulfur (Na–S) battery. With a relatively low operating temperature, this novel battery could reduce the cost and safety issues associated with the conventional high-temperature (300–350 °C) Na–S battery. A dense β′′-Al2O3 solid membrane and tetraglyme were utilized as the electrolyte separator and catholyte solvent in this battery. Solubility tests indicated that a cathode mixture of Na2S4 and S exhibited extremely high solubility in tetraglyme (e.g., >4.1 M for Na2S4 + 4 S). CV scans of Na2S4 in tetraglyme revealed two pairs of redox couples with peaks at around 2.22 and 1.75 V, corresponding to the redox reactions of polysulfide species. The discharge/charge profiles of the Na–S battery showed a slope region and a plateau, indicating multiple steps and cell reactions. In situ Raman measurements during battery operation suggested that polysulfide species were formed in the sequence of Na2S5 + S → Na2S5 + Na2S4 → Na2S4 + Na2S2 during discharge and in a reverse order during charge. This battery showed dramatic improvement in rate capacity and cycling stability over room-temperature Na–S batteries, which makes it more attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

Graphical abstract: Advanced intermediate-temperature Na–S battery

Supplementary files

Article information

Article type
26 Sep 2012
09 Nov 2012
First published
12 Nov 2012

Energy Environ. Sci., 2013,6, 299-306

Advanced intermediate-temperature Na–S battery

X. Lu, B. W. Kirby, W. Xu, G. Li, J. Y. Kim, J. P. Lemmon, V. L. Sprenkle and Z. Yang, Energy Environ. Sci., 2013, 6, 299 DOI: 10.1039/C2EE23606K

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