Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 4, 2013
Previous Article Next Article

Laser-printing of toner-based 96-microzone plates for immunoassays

Author affiliations


This work describes the quick and simple fabrication of toner-based 96-microzone plates by a direct-printing technology. The printer deposits a toner layer (ca. 5 μm thick) on the polyester surface which acts as a hydrophobic barrier to confine small volumes of sample on test zones (wells). A 96-microzone toner plate was explored to demonstrate its capability of performing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The detection of anti-immunoglobulin G (anti-IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies has been successfully achieved in cell culture and serum samples, respectively. The use of a conventional microplate reader has allowed obtaining a limit of detection of 13 fmol of mouse IgG per zone on printed microplates. The IgM antibody has been detected in a serum sample collected from a patient infected with dengue virus. The detection of a primary infection has been provided by a microplate reader and also by a cell phone camera. Besides the bioanalytical feasibility, toner-based zones have shown good repeatability for inter-zone and intra-plate comparisons. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values for inter-zone (n = 12) and intra-plate (n = 3) comparisons were lower than 6% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, it was found that the lifetime of each printed microplate depends on the storage temperature. The shelf life for devices stored at 10 °C has been estimated to be ca. four weeks.

Graphical abstract: Laser-printing of toner-based 96-microzone plates for immunoassays

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Article information

16 Aug 2012
02 Dec 2012
First published
04 Dec 2012

Analyst, 2013,138, 1114-1121
Article type

Laser-printing of toner-based 96-microzone plates for immunoassays

K. A. Oliveira, C. Rodrigues de Oliveira, L. Antonelli da Silveira and W. K. Tomazelli Coltro, Analyst, 2013, 138, 1114
DOI: 10.1039/C2AN36532D

Social activity

Search articles by author