We prepared antireflective nanoporous membranes by an extremely simple method which only involves the immersion of the optical substrates coated with amphiphilic block copolymers in hot ethanol for hours and a subsequent air drying process. Nanometer-sized pores were formed throughout the copolymer films through the swelling-induced pore generation mechanism. The pore structure and size, and consequently the antireflective properties of the porous copolymer membranes, could be modulated by changing the concentrations of the copolymer solutions and also the swelling temperature and time. A transmittance higher than 99% of the copolymer-coated glass substrate could be obtained at optimized conditions. Furthermore, to obtain robust and easily cleanable antireflective layers, we deposited TiO2 on the porous copolymer membranes by atomic layer deposition followed by calcination in air to burn off the polymer components, producing highly porous TiO2 membranes composed of interconnected nanotubes with thin tube walls. The replicated TiO2 membranes also displayed a good antireflective function because of their high porosity. Thanks to the conformal deposition of TiO2 on the copolymer membranes, the TiO2 replicas maintained structural integrity and mechanical robustness after high temperature calcination, and were tightly adhered to the glass substrate. Moreover, the calcined TiO2 was transformed to anatase and exhibited a photocatalytic effect. We demonstrated that contaminated TiO2 layers could recover their original high transmittance, either by directly rinsing with water or organic solvents, or by UV exposure to degrade organic contaminants.
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