Doping by diffusion of dopants from the substrate: synthesis of doped ZnO nanowires†
We report on the substrate assisted doping of ZnO nanowires grown by a vapor transport technique. The nanowires were grown non-catalytically on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and soda lime glass (SLG). Carbon from MWCNTs and sodium from SLG diffuse into ZnO during the growth and are distributed uniformly and provide doping. An advantage associated with the technique is that no conventional external dopant source is required to obtain doped ZnO nanowires. The diameter, length and hence the aspect ratio can easily be varied by changing the growth conditions. The transport studies on both carbon and sodium doped ZnO support the p-type nature of ZnO. The p-type nature of carbon doped ZnO is stable for at least eight months.